The Grandfather Of All Treaties

The Grandfather of all Treaties

A film by Candace Maracle

This film was screened as a part of the 2016 Cine Las Americas International Film Festival (CLAIFF19)

The Grandfather Of All Treaties


Canada, Historical/Land Rights/Environmental Documentary, 2015
57 min, Color
English, Kenien’keha with English subtitles

The Grandfather of All Treaties or the Two Row Wampum, is considered the most important diplomatic instrument in First Nation’s history. Wampum belts were among the first documented agreements between First Nations and European settlers. Each nation recognized the other’s sovereignty, and ecological stewardship was central to that co-existence. Nearly four centuries later, Onkwehonkwe people are still trying to navigate the waters in between. First Nations have endured a history of colonization— impoverished communities, social and environmental issues—while Canada remains one of the wealthiest countries in the world. People are taking a stand by asserting their sovereignty and using their treaty rights to protect the land. This documentary examines the Indigenous mobilization that is happening across North America.

US Premiere

About the director

Candace MaracleCandace Maracle is a Mohawk of the Bay of Quinte from Tyendinaga and a Master’s graduate of Ryerson University’s School of Journalism. Her work as a journalist includes reporting for the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network’s National News and producing for CBC Radio. Her first documentary, THE CREATOR’S GAME: THE QUEST FOR GOLD AND THE FIGHT FOR NATIONHOOD, premiered at imagineNative and won an audience award at the ReFrame International Film Festival. The film has also been integrated into Ontario school curriculum as part of hotDocs – Docs for Schools program.



Producer: Candace Maracle
Production Companies: Strawberry Moon Productions
Screenwriter: Candace Maracle
Cinematographer: Candace Maracle
Editor: Candace Maracle/Strawberry Moon Productions
Sound Design: Candace Maracle
Music: Dawn Avery, Pura Fe, Cam Hill, Ulali, Tsi, Tyonnheht Onkwawenna
Cast: Martin Lukacs, Rick Hill, Katsi Cook, Hickory Edwards, Phoenix Luke, Winter Luke, Ken Maracle

Print Source: Wanda vanderStoop – Vtape,